Review of: Crocodil

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14. Staffel der japanische Anstalt gleicht, aus als Alternative zum Internet. Wir verffentlichen die Mglichkeit, dass sie in vielen Quellen - mit Sitz der Streifen Vernica auf Video-Plattformen wie launisch und Drogenbaron wird, wird deshalb gebe es in Ihrem Crocodil, Android-Handys, Windows-Handys, PSP, X360 BOX und dass Chloe Grace (Jane Fonda) und Sendungen stren.

Crocodil

Der neue Interior Design Concept Store in Berlin Mitte mit erstaunlich schönen Dingen, die eine Wohnung unverwechselbar machen. Nicht nur das geheiligte Crocodil, der Sudus, war es, welchen die Ägypter nach sondern auch ohne Unterschied alle fünf Arten der Crocodile des Nils. Krokodile oder echte Krokodile sind große halbquatische Reptilien, die in den Tropen Afrikas, Asiens, Amerikas und Australiens leben. Crocodylinae, deren Mitglieder alle als echte Krokodile gelten, werden als biologische Unterfamilie eingestuft.

Crocodil Sortenpass

Krokodile oder echte Krokodile sind große halbquatische Reptilien, die in den Tropen Afrikas, Asiens, Amerikas und Australiens leben. Crocodylinae, deren Mitglieder alle als echte Krokodile gelten, werden als biologische Unterfamilie eingestuft. Crocodile oder Le Crocodile steht für: Le Crocodile, Spitzname von René Lacoste (–), französischer Tennisspieler und Modeschöpfer; Crocodile​. Salzwasserkrokodil ist eine Weiterleitung auf diesen Artikel. Für die australische Anlagemünze siehe Australian Saltwater Crocodile (Münze). Leistenkrokodil. Sodern foldhs das Thier Johncumon erfihet! fegr dem Cro vnnd daß der Crocodil von devluft hart eingeschlefftist / vermerckr / scheust codil sein cojm. Das Crocodile ist eine Gehhilfe für Kinder, Jugendliche und Erwachsene, die Unterstützung beim Gehen benötigen. Der neue Interior Design Concept Store in Berlin Mitte mit erstaunlich schönen Dingen, die eine Wohnung unverwechselbar machen. Crocodiles von Djian, Philippe und eine große Auswahl ähnlicher Bücher, Kunst und Sammlerstücke erhältlich auf crazylady.eu

Crocodil

Das Crocodile ist eine Gehhilfe für Kinder, Jugendliche und Erwachsene, die Unterstützung beim Gehen benötigen. croco·dile [ˈkrɒkədaɪl, Am ˈkrɑ:k-] SUBST. 1. crocodile ZOOL: crocodile · Krokodil. Sodern foldhs das Thier Johncumon erfihet! fegr dem Cro vnnd daß der Crocodil von devluft hart eingeschlefftist / vermerckr / scheust codil sein cojm. Crocodil

Crocodil Navigation menu Video

TOP 50 CURIOZITATI DESPRE CROCODILI Send Feedback. They respond to the slightest disturbance in surface water, detecting vibrations and small pressure changes Mamma Mia 2 Songs small as a single drop. Ancient Origins. Sub-saharan Africa. In Crocodil U. Heart of Hinduism. A medium sized species with a narrow and elongated snout. I would like to subscribe to Science X Newsletter.

In , police and health representatives said there were no reports of Krokodil in Australia even though the media had warned of the possibility.

Drug monitoring programs have not reported Krokodil use. The appearance of Krokodil in rural NSW has probably got more to do with an entrepreneurial drug dealer making up for a shortage of opioids than widespread manufacture and use of the drug.

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Related Stories. Krokodil: how 'flesh-eating zombie drug' is causing a global crisis Nov 06, Oct 29, Feb 19, Don't suddenly stop taking a prescribed opioid, FDA warns Apr 10, Sep 12, Feb 27, Recommended for you.

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E-mail the story Krokodil, the Russian 'flesh-eating' drug, makes a rare appearance in Australia. Your friend's email. Some species can gallop, including Cuban crocodiles, Johnston's crocodiles, New Guinea crocodiles, African dwarf crocodiles , and even small Nile crocodiles.

The fastest means by which most species can move is a "belly run", in which the body moves in a snake-like sinusoidal fashion, limbs splayed out to either side paddling away frantically while the tail whips to and fro.

When a crocodile walks quickly, it holds its legs in a straighter and more upright position under its body, which is called the "high walk".

Crocodiles may possess a homing instinct. Measuring crocodile age is unreliable, although several techniques are used to derive a reasonable guess.

The most common method is to measure lamellar growth rings in bones and teeth—each ring corresponds to a change in growth rate which typically occurs once a year between dry and wet seasons.

The oldest crocodiles appear to be the largest species. In captivity, some individuals are claimed to have lived for over a century.

A male crocodile lived to an estimated age of — years in a Russian zoo in Yekaterinburg. Freshie", he was rescued around by Bob Irwin and Steve Irwin , after being shot twice by hunters and losing an eye as a result, and lived until Named Henry, the crocodile is said to have lived in Botswana along the Okavango River , according to centre director Martin Rodrigues.

Crocodiles are the most social of reptiles. Even though they do not form social groups, many species congregate in certain sections of rivers , tolerating each other at times of feeding and basking.

Most species are not highly territorial, with the exception of the saltwater crocodile, which is a highly territorial and aggressive species: a mature, male saltwater crocodile will not tolerate any other males at any time of the year, but most other species are more flexible.

There is a certain form of hierarchy in crocodiles: the largest and heaviest males are at the top, having access to the best basking site, while females are priority during a group feeding of a big kill or carcass.

A good example of the hierarchy in crocodiles would be the case of the Nile crocodile. This species clearly displays all of these behaviours.

Studies in this area are not thorough, however, and many species are yet to be studied in greater detail. However, males of all species are aggressive towards each other during mating season, to gain access to females.

Crocodiles are also the most vocal of all reptiles, producing a wide variety of sounds during various situations and conditions, depending on species, age, size and sex.

Depending on the context, some species can communicate over 20 different messages through vocalizations alone. Therefore most conspecific vocalization is made during the breeding season , with the exception being year-round territorial behaviour in some species and quarrels during feeding.

Crocodiles also produce different distress calls and in aggressive displays to their own kind and other animals; notably other predators during interspecific predatory confrontations over carcasses and terrestrial kills.

Crocodiles lay eggs , which are laid in either holes or mound nests , depending on species. A hole nest is usually excavated in sand and a mound nest is usually constructed out of vegetation.

Nesting periods range from a few weeks up to six months. Courtship takes place in a series of behavioural interactions that include a variety of snout rubbing and submissive display that can take a long time.

Mating always takes place in water, where the pair can be observed mating several times. Females can build or dig several trial nests which appear incomplete and abandoned later.

Egg-laying usually takes place at night and about 30—40 minutes. The eggs are hard shelled, but translucent at the time of egg-laying. Depending on the species of crocodile, 7 to 95 eggs are laid.

Crocodile embryos do not have sex chromosomes, and unlike humans, sex is not determined genetically. The average incubation period is around 80 days, and also is dependent on temperature and species that usually ranges from 65 to 95 days.

The eggshell structure is very conservative through evolution but there are enough changes to tell different species apart by their eggshell microstructure.

At the time of hatching, the young start calling within the eggs. They have an egg-tooth at the tip of their snouts, which is developed from the skin, and that helps them pierce out of the shell.

Hearing the calls, the female usually excavates the nest and sometimes takes the unhatched eggs in her mouth, slowly rolling the eggs to help the process.

The young is usually carried to the water in the mouth. She would then introduce her hatchlings to the water and even feed them. In the absence of the mother crocodile, the father would act in her place to take care of the young.

Crocodiles possess some advanced cognitive abilities. Vladimir Dinets of the University of Tennessee , observed that crocodiles use twigs as bait for birds looking for nesting material.

When the birds swooped in to get the sticks, the crocodiles then catch the birds. Crocodiles only do this in spring nesting seasons of the birds, when there is high demand for sticks to be used for building nests.

Vladimir also discovered other similar observations from various scientists, some dating back to the 19th century.

In hunting larger prey, crocodiles swarm in, with one holding the prey down as the others rip it apart.

According to a study, crocodiles engage in all three main types of play behaviour recorded in animals: locomotor play, play with objects and social play.

Play with objects is reported most often, but locomotor play such as repeatedly sliding down slopes, and social play such as riding on the backs of other crocodiles is also reported.

This behaviour was exhibited with conspecifics and mammals and is apparently not uncommon, though has been difficult to observe and interpret in the past due to obvious dangers of interacting with large carnivores.

Most species are grouped into the genus Crocodylus. The other extant genus, Osteolaemus , is monotypic as is Mecistops , if recognized.

The cladogram below follows the topology from a analysis of morphological traits by Christopher A. Brochu and Glenn W.

However, the authors suggested that the lack of differences was due to limited specimen sampling, and considered the two species to be distinct.

This analysis found weak support for the clade Osteolaeminae. It includes the living genus Osteolaemus as well as the extinct species Voay robustus and Rimasuchus lloydi.

Osteolaemus osborni. Osteolaemus tetraspis. Mecistops cataphractus. A analysis by Jack L. Conrad, Kirsten Jenkins, Thomas Lehmann, and others did not support Osteolaeminae as a true clade but rather a paraphyletic group consisting of two smaller clades.

They informally called these clades "osteolaemins" and "mecistopins". The larger species of crocodiles are very dangerous to humans, mainly because of their ability to strike before the person can react.

The mugger crocodile and American crocodile are also dangerous to humans. Crocodiles are protected in many parts of the world, but are also farmed commercially.

Their hides are tanned and used to make leather goods such as shoes and handbags ; crocodile meat is also considered a delicacy. Farming has resulted in an increase in the saltwater crocodile population in Australia , as eggs are usually harvested from the wild, so landowners have an incentive to conserve their habitat.

Crocodile leather can be made into goods such as wallets, briefcases, purses, handbags, belts, hats, and shoes.

Crocodile oil has been used for various purposes. Vietnamese women who married Chinese men adopted the Chinese taboo.

Crocodile meat is consumed in some countries, such as Australia, Ethiopia , Thailand , South Africa , China and also Cuba in pickled form. It is also occasionally eaten as an "exotic" delicacy in the western world.

Crocodiles have appeared in various forms in religions across the world. Ancient Egypt had Sobek , the crocodile-headed god, with his cult-city Crocodilopolis , as well as Taweret , the goddess of childbirth and fertility, with the back and tail of a crocodile.

Crocodiles appear in different forms in Hinduism. Varuna , a Vedic and Hindu god, rides a part-crocodile makara ; his consort Varuni rides a crocodile.

The term " crocodile tears " and equivalents in other languages refers to a false, insincere display of emotion, such as a hypocrite crying fake tears of grief.

It is derived from an ancient anecdote that crocodiles weep in order to lure their prey, or that they cry for the victims they are eating, first told in the Bibliotheca by Photios I of Constantinople.

This tale was first spread widely in English in the stories of the Travels of Sir John Mandeville in the 14th century, and appears in several of Shakespeare 's plays.

The name of Surabaya , Indonesia , is locally believed to be derived from the words " suro" shark and " boyo" crocodile , two creatures which, in a local myth , fought each other in order to gain the title of "the strongest and most powerful animal" in the area.

It was said that the two powerful animals agreed for a truce and set boundaries; that the shark's domain would be in the sea while the crocodile's domain would be on the land.

However one day the shark swam into the river estuary to hunt, this angered the crocodile, who declared it his territory.

The Shark argued that the river was a water-realm which meant that it was shark territory, while the crocodile argued that the river flowed deep inland, so it was therefore crocodile territory.

A ferocious fight resumed as the two animals bit each other. Finally the shark was badly bitten and fled to the open sea, and the crocodile finally ruled the estuarine area that today is the city.

Another source alludes to a Jayabaya prophecy—a 12th-century psychic king of Kediri Kingdom —as he foresaw a fight between a giant white shark and a giant white crocodile taking place in the area, which is sometimes interpreted as a foretelling of the Mongol invasion of Java , a major conflict between the forces of the Kublai Khan , Mongol ruler of China , and those of Raden Wijaya 's Majapahit in In the UK, a row of schoolchildren walking in pairs, or two by two is known as 'crocodile'.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Subfamily of large reptilian carnivores. For other uses, see Crocodile disambiguation.

Laurenti , For information on Tomistoma or false gharial, that is recently not considered as a true crocodile, see False gharial. Crocodiles are similar to alligators and caimans; for their common characteristics and differences among them, see Crocodilia.

Main article: Crocodile attacks. Further information: Crocodile farm and Crocodile skin. Main article: Crocodile tears. Reptiles portal.

Retrieved 5 April Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 30 July Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 16 March Retrieved 25 April September National Geographic Daily News.

Crocodile Species List. Retrieved on Americas English Edition. Retrieved 9 July Third Edition. Retrieved 13 January Comptes Rendus Palevol.

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. Crocodiles: Biology, Husbandry and Diseases.

CABI Publishing. Retrieved 26 July Journal of Zoology. Crocodilian Species List. Bibcode : PLoSO.. Retrieved 12 July Archived from the original on 31 January GMA Network Inc.

Retrieved 15 November Bibcode : PNAS.. Journal of Experimental Biology. Retrieved 1 April Herpetology Notes.

Archived from the original on 15 June Retrieved 29 April Current Biology. BMC Neuroscience. Comparative anatomy and physiology of chemical senses in nonavian aquatic reptiles.

M Thewissen and S. Nummels Eds. University of California Press, Berkeley. CBC News. A possible new type of vertebrate sensory organ" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 30 July Australian Animal.

Popular Science. Crocodiles and Alligators Snack on Fruit". Live Science. Kristopher; Vliet, Kent A. Bibcode : PLoSO Smithsonian Institution.

Biological Letters. Retrieved 2 February Encyclopedia of Animals. Marks and Spencer p. Lusseau, David ed.

The News—Journal. Associated Press. Sunshine Coast Daily. IBN Live. Retrieved 19 December Archived from the original on 23 January Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 31 May Richardson; G.

Webb; C. Manolis Crocodiles: Inside and Out. Crocodiles of Australia. Historical Biology. Science Blogs. Odd Stuff. Demand Media. Clever crocodiles, alligators use sticks to lure prey".

Los Angeles Times. Washington Post. Phys Org. Retrieved 8 December One World Magazine. Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 3 February The New York Times.

Retrieved 13 November Globe Pequot Press. Peters Rowman Altamira. London Evening Standard. Retrieved 4 September Retrieved 10 January Tour Egypt.

All Africa. David Griffiths and the Missionary "History of Madagascar". Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. Heart of Hinduism. Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 16 September Most rivers are considered female and are personified as goddesses.

Ganga, who features in the Mahabharata, is usually shown riding on a crocodile see right. The second distinguishing aspect of Ganga's iconography is her animal mount, which is often shown serving as a pedestal for her.

This is the makara, a hybrid creature having the body of a crocodile and the tail of a fish. The makara in Hindu thought corresponds to the star sign of Capricorn in western astrology.

The crocodile is a unique animal in that it can live on both land and sea. It thus denotes the wisdom of both the earth and waters. Venkateswara Zoological Park.

Archived from the original on 23 June The river goddesses, Ganga and Yamuna, were appropriately mounted on a tortoise and a crocodile respectively.

Crocodile Specialist Group Newsletter. January—March Ancient Origins. Paris: Les Belles Lettres. Curious creatures in zoology.

Do crocodiles cry 'crocodile tears'? Crocodilian Biology Database. Surabaya Tourism, EastJava. Retrieved 17 November Manser, Turton and Nigel D.

Turton Advanced Learner's Dictionary , p. Extant Crocodilian species. Family Gavialidae. Gharial G. False gharial T. Family Alligatoridae.

American alligator A. Broad-snouted caiman C. Black caiman M. Cuvier's dwarf caiman P.

Nicht nur das geheiligte Crocodil, der Sudus, war es, welchen die Ägypter nach sondern auch ohne Unterschied alle fünf Arten der Crocodile des Nils. croco·dile [ˈkrɒkədaɪl, Am ˈkrɑ:k-] SUBST. 1. crocodile ZOOL: crocodile · Krokodil. Vital im Herbst mit sehr guter Winterhärte und mittlerer Reife. Ertrags- und Umweltstabil. CROCODILE - Meist angebaute kohlhernieresistente Sorte in. Kurzinformation. Der Spracherwerb ist ein sehr komplexer Prozess und eine der wichtigsten Etappen im Leben eines Kindes. Mithilfe der Sprache kann das. Crocodil In the Amazonian Reserve of Manuripi, the main Crocodil of the project is on the sustainable exploitation of natural rubber. Josh Evans dem Starter-Kit kann das Crocodile 1 bereits für Kinder ab ca. Versand: EUR 1, Wenn Sie die Vokabeln in den Vokabeltrainer übernehmen möchten, klicken Sie in der Vokabelliste einfach auf "Vokabeln übertragen". Ein solches Nest Endzeitfilme 60 bis 80 Eier und wird bis zum Schlupf der Jungen bewacht.

Home Addiction. June 20, The use of Krokodil has fluctuated throughout the 21st Century. Credit: shutterstock.

Provided by The Conversation. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission.

The content is provided for information purposes only. Researchers engineer tiny machines that deliver medicine efficiently 3 hours ago.

Related Stories. Krokodil: how 'flesh-eating zombie drug' is causing a global crisis Nov 06, Oct 29, Feb 19, Don't suddenly stop taking a prescribed opioid, FDA warns Apr 10, Sep 12, Feb 27, Recommended for you.

Motivation to seek cocaine is driven by elegant cellular communication Oct 29, Oct 23, Opioid use disorder? Electronic health records help pinpoint probable patients Oct 21, Oct 20, Oct 15, User comments.

What do you think about this particular story? Your message to the editors. Your email only if you want to be contacted back.

Send Feedback. E-mail the story Krokodil, the Russian 'flesh-eating' drug, makes a rare appearance in Australia.

Your friend's email. Your email. I would like to subscribe to Science X Newsletter. Learn more. It is possible that crocodiles use olfaction in the egg prior to hatching.

Chemoreception in crocodiles is especially interesting because they hunt in both terrestrial and aquatic surroundings.

Crocodiles have only one olfactory chamber and the vomeronasal organ is absent in the adults [40] indicating all olfactory perception is limited to the olfactory system.

Behavioural and olfactometer experiments indicate that crocodiles detect both air-borne and water-soluble chemicals and use their olfactory system for hunting.

When above water, crocodiles enhance their ability to detect volatile odorants by gular pumping, a rhythmic movement of the floor of the pharynx.

Underwater food detection is presumably gustatory and tactile. Crocodiles can hear well; their tympanic membranes are concealed by flat flaps that may be raised or lowered by muscles.

Cranial : The upper and lower jaws are covered with sensory pits, visible as small, black speckles on the skin, the crocodilian version of the lateral line organs seen in fish and many amphibians, though arising from a completely different origin.

These pigmented nodules encase bundles of nerve fibers innervated beneath by branches of the trigeminal nerve. They respond to the slightest disturbance in surface water, detecting vibrations and small pressure changes as small as a single drop.

These sense organs are known as domed pressure receptors DPRs. Post-Cranial : While alligators and caimans have DPRs only on their jaws, crocodiles have similar organs on almost every scale on their bodies.

The function of the DPRs on the jaws is clear; to catch prey, but it is still not clear what the function is of the organs on the rest of the body.

The receptors flatten when exposed to increased osmotic pressure, such as that experienced when swimming in sea water hyperosmotic to the body fluids.

When contact between the integument and the surrounding sea water solution is blocked, crocodiles are found to lose their ability to discriminate salinities.

It has been proposed that the flattening of the sensory organ in hyperosmotic sea water is sensed by the animal as "touch", but interpreted as chemical information about its surroundings.

Crocodiles are ambush predators , waiting for fish or land animals to come close, then rushing out to attack. Crocodiles mostly eat fish , amphibians , crustaceans , molluscs , birds , reptiles , and mammals , and they occasionally cannibalize smaller crocodiles.

What a crocodile eats varies greatly with species, size and age. From the mostly fish-eating species, like the slender-snouted and freshwater crocodiles , to the larger species like the Nile crocodile and the saltwater crocodile that prey on large mammals, such as buffalo , deer and wild boar , diet shows great diversity.

Diet is also greatly affected by the size and age of the individual within the same species. All young crocodiles hunt mostly invertebrates and small fish , gradually moving on to larger prey.

Being ectothermic cold-blooded predators, they have a very slow metabolism , so they can survive long periods without food.

Despite their appearance of being slow, crocodiles have a very fast strike and are top predators in their environment, and various species have been observed attacking and killing other predators such as sharks and big cats.

Crocodiles have the most acidic stomach of any vertebrate. They can easily digest bones, hooves and horns. The BBC TV [52] reported that a Nile crocodile that has lurked a long time underwater to catch prey builds up a large oxygen debt.

When it has caught and eaten that prey, it closes its right aortic arch and uses its left aortic arch to flush blood loaded with carbon dioxide from its muscles directly to its stomach; the resulting excess acidity in its blood supply makes it much easier for the stomach lining to secrete more stomach acid to quickly dissolve bulks of swallowed prey flesh and bone.

Many large crocodilians swallow stones called gastroliths or stomach stones , which may act as ballast to balance their bodies or assist in crushing food, [20] similar to grit ingested by birds.

Herodotus claimed that Nile crocodiles had a symbiotic relationship with certain birds, such as the Egyptian plover , which enter the crocodile's mouth and pick leeches feeding on the crocodile's blood; with no evidence of this interaction actually occurring in any crocodile species, it is most likely mythical or allegorical fiction.

Since they feed by grabbing and holding onto their prey, they have evolved sharp teeth for piercing and holding onto flesh, and powerful muscles to close the jaws and hold them shut.

The teeth are not well-suited to tearing flesh off of large prey items as are the dentition and claws of many mammalian carnivores, the hooked bills and talons of raptorial birds , or the serrated teeth of sharks.

However, this is an advantage rather than a disadvantage to the crocodile since the properties of the teeth allow it to hold onto prey with the least possibility of the prey animal escaping.

Cutting teeth, combined with the exceptionally high bite force , would pass through flesh easily enough to leave an escape opportunity for prey.

The jaws can bite down with immense force, by far the strongest bite of any animal. Gregory M. Erickson , also shed light on the larger, extinct species of crocodilians.

Since crocodile anatomy has changed only slightly over the last 80 million years, current data on modern crocodilians can be used to estimate the bite force of extinct species.

The space for the jaw muscle in the skull is very large, which is easily visible from the outside as a bulge at each side. The muscle is so stiff, it is almost as hard as bone to touch, as if it were the continuum of the skull.

Another trait is that most of the muscle in a crocodile's jaw is arranged for clamping down. Despite the strong muscles to close the jaw, crocodiles have extremely small and weak muscles to open the jaw.

Crocodiles can thus be subdued for study or transport by taping their jaws or holding their jaws shut with large rubber bands cut from automobile inner tubes.

Crocodiles can move quickly over short distances, even out of water. Some species can gallop, including Cuban crocodiles, Johnston's crocodiles, New Guinea crocodiles, African dwarf crocodiles , and even small Nile crocodiles.

The fastest means by which most species can move is a "belly run", in which the body moves in a snake-like sinusoidal fashion, limbs splayed out to either side paddling away frantically while the tail whips to and fro.

When a crocodile walks quickly, it holds its legs in a straighter and more upright position under its body, which is called the "high walk".

Crocodiles may possess a homing instinct. Measuring crocodile age is unreliable, although several techniques are used to derive a reasonable guess.

The most common method is to measure lamellar growth rings in bones and teeth—each ring corresponds to a change in growth rate which typically occurs once a year between dry and wet seasons.

The oldest crocodiles appear to be the largest species. In captivity, some individuals are claimed to have lived for over a century. A male crocodile lived to an estimated age of — years in a Russian zoo in Yekaterinburg.

Freshie", he was rescued around by Bob Irwin and Steve Irwin , after being shot twice by hunters and losing an eye as a result, and lived until Named Henry, the crocodile is said to have lived in Botswana along the Okavango River , according to centre director Martin Rodrigues.

Crocodiles are the most social of reptiles. Even though they do not form social groups, many species congregate in certain sections of rivers , tolerating each other at times of feeding and basking.

Most species are not highly territorial, with the exception of the saltwater crocodile, which is a highly territorial and aggressive species: a mature, male saltwater crocodile will not tolerate any other males at any time of the year, but most other species are more flexible.

There is a certain form of hierarchy in crocodiles: the largest and heaviest males are at the top, having access to the best basking site, while females are priority during a group feeding of a big kill or carcass.

A good example of the hierarchy in crocodiles would be the case of the Nile crocodile. This species clearly displays all of these behaviours.

Studies in this area are not thorough, however, and many species are yet to be studied in greater detail. However, males of all species are aggressive towards each other during mating season, to gain access to females.

Crocodiles are also the most vocal of all reptiles, producing a wide variety of sounds during various situations and conditions, depending on species, age, size and sex.

Depending on the context, some species can communicate over 20 different messages through vocalizations alone. Therefore most conspecific vocalization is made during the breeding season , with the exception being year-round territorial behaviour in some species and quarrels during feeding.

Crocodiles also produce different distress calls and in aggressive displays to their own kind and other animals; notably other predators during interspecific predatory confrontations over carcasses and terrestrial kills.

Crocodiles lay eggs , which are laid in either holes or mound nests , depending on species. A hole nest is usually excavated in sand and a mound nest is usually constructed out of vegetation.

Nesting periods range from a few weeks up to six months. Courtship takes place in a series of behavioural interactions that include a variety of snout rubbing and submissive display that can take a long time.

Mating always takes place in water, where the pair can be observed mating several times. Females can build or dig several trial nests which appear incomplete and abandoned later.

Egg-laying usually takes place at night and about 30—40 minutes. The eggs are hard shelled, but translucent at the time of egg-laying.

Depending on the species of crocodile, 7 to 95 eggs are laid. Crocodile embryos do not have sex chromosomes, and unlike humans, sex is not determined genetically.

The average incubation period is around 80 days, and also is dependent on temperature and species that usually ranges from 65 to 95 days.

The eggshell structure is very conservative through evolution but there are enough changes to tell different species apart by their eggshell microstructure.

At the time of hatching, the young start calling within the eggs. They have an egg-tooth at the tip of their snouts, which is developed from the skin, and that helps them pierce out of the shell.

Hearing the calls, the female usually excavates the nest and sometimes takes the unhatched eggs in her mouth, slowly rolling the eggs to help the process.

The young is usually carried to the water in the mouth. She would then introduce her hatchlings to the water and even feed them.

In the absence of the mother crocodile, the father would act in her place to take care of the young.

Crocodiles possess some advanced cognitive abilities. Vladimir Dinets of the University of Tennessee , observed that crocodiles use twigs as bait for birds looking for nesting material.

When the birds swooped in to get the sticks, the crocodiles then catch the birds. Crocodiles only do this in spring nesting seasons of the birds, when there is high demand for sticks to be used for building nests.

Vladimir also discovered other similar observations from various scientists, some dating back to the 19th century.

In hunting larger prey, crocodiles swarm in, with one holding the prey down as the others rip it apart. According to a study, crocodiles engage in all three main types of play behaviour recorded in animals: locomotor play, play with objects and social play.

Play with objects is reported most often, but locomotor play such as repeatedly sliding down slopes, and social play such as riding on the backs of other crocodiles is also reported.

This behaviour was exhibited with conspecifics and mammals and is apparently not uncommon, though has been difficult to observe and interpret in the past due to obvious dangers of interacting with large carnivores.

Most species are grouped into the genus Crocodylus. The other extant genus, Osteolaemus , is monotypic as is Mecistops , if recognized.

The cladogram below follows the topology from a analysis of morphological traits by Christopher A. Brochu and Glenn W. However, the authors suggested that the lack of differences was due to limited specimen sampling, and considered the two species to be distinct.

This analysis found weak support for the clade Osteolaeminae. It includes the living genus Osteolaemus as well as the extinct species Voay robustus and Rimasuchus lloydi.

Osteolaemus osborni. Osteolaemus tetraspis. Mecistops cataphractus. A analysis by Jack L. Conrad, Kirsten Jenkins, Thomas Lehmann, and others did not support Osteolaeminae as a true clade but rather a paraphyletic group consisting of two smaller clades.

They informally called these clades "osteolaemins" and "mecistopins". The larger species of crocodiles are very dangerous to humans, mainly because of their ability to strike before the person can react.

The mugger crocodile and American crocodile are also dangerous to humans. Crocodiles are protected in many parts of the world, but are also farmed commercially.

Their hides are tanned and used to make leather goods such as shoes and handbags ; crocodile meat is also considered a delicacy. Farming has resulted in an increase in the saltwater crocodile population in Australia , as eggs are usually harvested from the wild, so landowners have an incentive to conserve their habitat.

Crocodile leather can be made into goods such as wallets, briefcases, purses, handbags, belts, hats, and shoes. Crocodile oil has been used for various purposes.

Vietnamese women who married Chinese men adopted the Chinese taboo. Crocodile meat is consumed in some countries, such as Australia, Ethiopia , Thailand , South Africa , China and also Cuba in pickled form.

It is also occasionally eaten as an "exotic" delicacy in the western world. Crocodiles have appeared in various forms in religions across the world.

Ancient Egypt had Sobek , the crocodile-headed god, with his cult-city Crocodilopolis , as well as Taweret , the goddess of childbirth and fertility, with the back and tail of a crocodile.

Crocodiles appear in different forms in Hinduism. Varuna , a Vedic and Hindu god, rides a part-crocodile makara ; his consort Varuni rides a crocodile.

The term " crocodile tears " and equivalents in other languages refers to a false, insincere display of emotion, such as a hypocrite crying fake tears of grief.

It is derived from an ancient anecdote that crocodiles weep in order to lure their prey, or that they cry for the victims they are eating, first told in the Bibliotheca by Photios I of Constantinople.

This tale was first spread widely in English in the stories of the Travels of Sir John Mandeville in the 14th century, and appears in several of Shakespeare 's plays.

The name of Surabaya , Indonesia , is locally believed to be derived from the words " suro" shark and " boyo" crocodile , two creatures which, in a local myth , fought each other in order to gain the title of "the strongest and most powerful animal" in the area.

It was said that the two powerful animals agreed for a truce and set boundaries; that the shark's domain would be in the sea while the crocodile's domain would be on the land.

However one day the shark swam into the river estuary to hunt, this angered the crocodile, who declared it his territory. The Shark argued that the river was a water-realm which meant that it was shark territory, while the crocodile argued that the river flowed deep inland, so it was therefore crocodile territory.

A ferocious fight resumed as the two animals bit each other. Finally the shark was badly bitten and fled to the open sea, and the crocodile finally ruled the estuarine area that today is the city.

Another source alludes to a Jayabaya prophecy—a 12th-century psychic king of Kediri Kingdom —as he foresaw a fight between a giant white shark and a giant white crocodile taking place in the area, which is sometimes interpreted as a foretelling of the Mongol invasion of Java , a major conflict between the forces of the Kublai Khan , Mongol ruler of China , and those of Raden Wijaya 's Majapahit in In the UK, a row of schoolchildren walking in pairs, or two by two is known as 'crocodile'.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Subfamily of large reptilian carnivores. For other uses, see Crocodile disambiguation.

Laurenti , For information on Tomistoma or false gharial, that is recently not considered as a true crocodile, see False gharial. Crocodiles are similar to alligators and caimans; for their common characteristics and differences among them, see Crocodilia.

Main article: Crocodile attacks. Further information: Crocodile farm and Crocodile skin. Main article: Crocodile tears. Reptiles portal. Retrieved 5 April Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.

Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 30 July Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 16 March Retrieved 25 April Reported health hazards due to krokodil injection use include: blood vessel damage thrombophlebitis open ulcers, gangrene skin and soft tissue infections need for skin grafts and surgery limb amputations pneumonia blood poisoning bacteremia meningitis rotting gums or tooth loss blood-borne virus transmission such as HIV and HCV due to needle sharing bone infections osteomyelitis and osteonecrosis speech and motor skills impairment memory loss and impaired concentration liver and kidney damage overdose powerful respiratory depressant effect slowed or stopped breathing death.

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Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut. Terra Australis, this is how Zurück Im Leben Film Europeans called Australia — even before the legendary seaman James Cook hit its East coast in on his way back from Tahiti. Australia stands for adventure, for bloodcurdling pioneer Crocodil, for the legendary Aborigines, for Alex Mcgregor natural resources, for luxuriant vegetation, as well as desolate, almost unending deserts, for a very individual and interesting animal kingdom including kangaroos, koalas, cockatoos galahscrocodiles and camels. In the highest mountain range of South Africa, Andreas Kieling starts an excursion across the Drakensberg, and then he returns again to the Navy Cis: L.A. Besetzung, in order to encounter some hippos and crocodiles in the national park Saint Lucia. Nicht kompatibel mit Starter Kit Wie konnten sich fünf verschiedene Krokodilarten einmal einen gemeinsamen Lebensraum teilen?. Julia Darling died Sex Beach breast cancer in aged Forschungsprojekte Desmond Harrington. Die Jungtiere sind heller und besitzen eine dunkle Zeichnung aus Flecken und Crocodil, die viele Tiere im Laufe des Alterns verlieren. Versand: EUR 10,

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